Electronic necklace (further - el. necklace), can become a master unit in a wireless Personal Area Network with unlicensed network parameters (Bluetooth, Kleer, ZigBee, AirPlay, Piconet, Ultra-Wide Band, etc.) for communication between the device itself and (or) telephone, player, radio, computer, and if el. necklace itself functions as a smartphone, also own interface in the form of the pocket wireless screen and keyboard, where earphones are adapted for long painless carrying, where the special topology of microphones on necklace (from three to nine) allows to generate a microphone matrix and a hardware-software complex for receiving a high-quality speech of the carrier with its postprocessing and transmission to network operator (or for giving any voice commands) without the microphones approached to a mouth, where wires of earphones are jointed to basic electronic unit through an additional back wire, which is formed by connecting the earphones cable by means of the additional unit – suboccipital node lying in working position on the top back surface of a neck under a nape, thereby fixing the earphones wires and headphone themselves, reduces and orders excursion of mobile wires lengths, and in a non-working state allows to allocate the removed earphones and their wires in a back part of an electronic necklace needlessly to remove the entire device. General view of el. Necklace in preferred embodiment and methods of wearing are shown in Fig. 1-9.
Field of using.
Almost in all presented in markets Bluetooth stereo headsets there are freely hanging wires, there is their surplus at sagging, deciding this surplus provided not pulling earphones at head movement, though if wires are too long, their body weight promotes loss of earphones, and if are short, they pull out them from ears at head movement.
Lacks: changes to some extent external shape of the user; hanging down, dangling wires; deformation of user's speech if there is no the microphone allocated opposite to a mouth of speaking user; restrictions and difficulties in managing and adjusting the headset; necessity of location in a pocket or in a bag in idle mode; a short operating time; low quality sound in monoset; inconvenience and discomfort at long carrying.
In el. necklace, thanks to the special earphones cable strain and presence of the additional fixation node among themselves in a certain place, that leads to formation of the suboccipital node, the length of a back wire is designed in such a way that it is always equal to, but it is not less the distance occurring at maximum turn and tilt the head back between the motionless back part of a necklace and a junction of a back wire and the earphones wires in the 1st cervical vertebra. Length of the back wire is calculated so that its excursion or length of a sagging part was the minimum.
Difference from existing in the market devices:
- Stereo headset of constant carrying in the form of electronic necklace jointed to earphones with spring-loaded wire with additional wire fixation unit differs from existing due the big sizes of the device with anatomic and ergonomic shape that allows it to allocate in it additional hardware base (microphones, DSP signal processor, more capacious power battery etc.).
- El. necklace, connected to the spring-loaded earphones wire, in contrast to existing stereo bluetooth headsets, connected to earphones in a various ways, has a minimum possible length of free-lying (that is, inclined to sagging) wires, and other wires (each about two thirds the total length of all wires) are placed on the surface and along the body tight, are tensioned, do not sag, earphones firmly held in auricle and external acoustical channel, that changes appearance of the person carrying them slightly, freedom of his movements is not limited, earphones can be easily removed from the ears and hide under clothing, are easily taken from under clothes, or from under a collar behind from a special soft pocket of the back block of an electronic necklace and are put on auricle at call reception.
- Length of wires from arches to cable connection point is adjustable, in contrast to existing models allows trimming wires of earphones under individual size and, accordingly, provides denser fit of wires, dependability of carrying, does not change significantly appearance of the user.
- Special form of flat earphones have two modes of use – “comfort”, with possibility of long-term comfortable carrying and for a sound transmission in a narrow frequency band (300-3500Hz) for medium quality and possibility to hear environment sounds, and mode "quality" - for passive noise reduction and deliver to the human ear sound vibrations in a wide frequency range with high quality, thus earphones are adapted for storage, being pressed to the body located on the human body electronic necklace, which is not removed even in a non-working state (with earphones tucked away), thus earphones do not cling to clothes when minimizing, do not deliver inconveniences to user at storage.
- El. necklace densely adjoins to a body and has a built-in vibration, which can be set to several vibration options and turning off a loud phone ring, do not miss a call or message, with the possibility for a variety of vibration settings, differentiate types of calls and messages.
- Control of el. necklace, in contrast to existing stereo bluetooth headsets, it is not necessary to get it from a pocket or under clothes, regardless of the carrier clothes.
- When removing el. necklace easily folded (rolled in a special way in presence of a chain, ribbon or flat wire), eliminating the confusion of wires.
Description for specialists:
Stereo headset of constant carrying, designed as necklaces, scarves, a scarf, a chain, a wire, yoke, a collar, a loop, clasped (mainly at women), or put on a neck through a head, mainly on naked body, connected with two-way plug-in stereo headphones, used for communicating with a mobile phone, music player, radio, while she may be the phone (smartphone), radio, music player, Wi-Fi or GPS-receiver, do not tie the carrier hands, provides better call quality, does not hinder the user's move when not in use.
Circuit diagram of el. necklace: front side of el. necklace (front unit), bearing hardware and software complex, located on the user’s breast, back side of el. necklace located on the dorsal surface of the top back part, on border of neck, in its composition may include as connective - adjusting, and lingering-taken up mechanisms. Both parts are connected by wires, forming flexible lateral loops - right and left, annularly going around the neck and connecting in the back of the electronic necklace, from which, in turn, leaves the back line, which is part of the earphones.
Front side of el. necklace – front unit is designed as a medallion, in which can be mounted: radio receiver-transmitter (such as Bluetooth receiver-transmitter), that receive signal from a cell phone, there may be battery, player, radio, flash drive, electronic key, satellite signal receiver (for example GPS receiver) that sends location coordinates to navigate for user with the appropriate software.
In structure of possible electronic components mounted in the front unit may include a Bluetooth chip and GSM modules, GPS or GLONASS satellite navigation module, module of Near Field Connection, which can be used: for quickly activate and interfacing of el. necklace with phone and (or) on-screen keyboard unit, for secure information storage and sharing of passwords and keys with the same unit, if it is an electronic key to the electronic lock, and basic information is stored in el. necklace, and transfer of code is made by the phone applied (or on- screen keyboard unit, if basic functions of a smartphone in el. necklace) to el. necklace, then a smartphone is applied to the electronic lock, and after the implementation of a function that requires a request code, phone unit "forgets" the code. Information stored in el. necklace is more protected from loss, as stored on the user's body literally, and transmitted via NFC at a short distance, which eliminates unauthorized copying.
Carrying wires of necklace connects front and rear of the el. necklace go a ring around the neck, can be in the form of a simple round wire, flat wire, loop, chains, which is hidden inside the wire. Chain or flat cable can be with variable width (wider at the point of attachment to the front and (or) back el. necklace and flat-out to the middle of the loop.) Some elements of the loop can carry any interface elements (buttons and keys), remote MEMS microphones, and (or) basic or additional power battery.
Back side of el. necklace - unit of simultaneous joints of carrying wires (left and right loop) and proximal ends of the earphones wires that provides formation of node, similar to the tie, so-called "back tie", which can be placed and (or ) counterweight, providing a permanent tension for earphones cables, and (or) additional or main battery, and (or) may be adjustable tension coil wire, or rolled wire rollers, vibration (when available), as well as all the things that could be placed in front of the necklace. When you place any mechanisms and devices in the back tie should call it "back block".
Earphones with postaural elastic, hook shaped handles or haunches, each wire from an earphone transits in the handle, bending around an auricle from above, then goes down behind an auricle back and downwards, goes approximately on border of hair growth, connecting to a wire from an opposite earphone in the center of the bottom occipital part of a head, at level of the first cervical vertebra, and next already in the form of one back wire leaves down on a neck back side, connecting to a back part of el. necklace, lying on the top part of a back around the seventh cervical or the first thoracic vertebrae.
In some variants of the el. necklace it is possible to refuse of transmission wires, to leave only power cable, and in each earphone - transmitting and receiving wireless module. But in any case, earphones are connected with el. necklace by means of a wires, connection occurs in top and median areas of the el. necklace back part, and earphones wires have an additional interfacing node – suboccipital node that conducts to formation of a back wire.
Fixation of proximal ends of the earphones wires with the back side of the electronic necklace is at a point in the trough like depression between spinous and transverse processes of the vertebrae (sulcus dorsalis), at level of 2-3 thoracic vertebrae in the interscapular area, where the place of attachment of the medial edge of both blades serratus anterior muscle - musculis serratus anterior, as well as major and minor rhomboids (musculae rhomboidei major et minor) according to the constitution and development of subcutaneous fat is formed of different severity pit measuring about 4x5 cm, in the above pit can hold (if available) the back unit of el. necklace, which can carry a mechanical winder of the earphones wires, not appearing above surface of body and, thus, delivering a minimum of inconvenience to the user. Further back wire (or dual back wire) coming out of the fixation point with a necklace, goes up to the back of the head on dorsal surface of the neck, by the paravertebral deepening (sulcus costae vertebralis major), reaching a point where the branch, which is located under the external occipital protuberance at 2 - 3 cervical vertebrae, the wire is divided into left and right, and practically coincides with the upper occipital line of skull, is in an oblique anterior-upward direction (or just above the hairline), through the mastoid area (regiones mastoideae) of neck, above the mastoid process, through projection ligamentum auriculare superior, attaches top side of the ear cartilage to squamous part of temporal bone on the upper sections of the ear between front curl tragus and outer ear to the fixation point in the earphone of the corresponding side.
Fixation of wire in suboccipital point is achieved by a snug fit to the dorsal surface of head and neck in the holding points having such fixing anatomical structures as external occipital protuberance and lateral occipital projections, as well as tension-type girth girded by earphones wires.
With this method of fixing is movable only so called back wire, and only it has the hang loosely section of wire with a length (excursion) changes when turning your head in the horizontal plane, move your head back, rocking from side to side as well as the combination of these movements, that is, with all the options that arise in closed kinematic circuits of neck.
The earphones wires are fixed on the scalp and motionless relative to the head of carrier, that is, no excursion, their length does not change at all of the above movements.
Fixation of the earphones wires also helps a cellular structure of connective tissue of the subcutaneous fat of the occipital area, small displaceability skin in this area, the presence of walking in the transverse direction in the skin so-called cleavage lines, as well as the passage of wire by hollow ear dip and location of earphones in the outer ear.
For fixation of the earphones in the outer ear is the special design of the earphone, not having a bow, but with a so-called "haunch" – hard part, attached to the body of the earphone, which lies in the outer ear, and continued upward from leg of curl ear in the ascending part of the spire to the ligamentum auriculare superior, the attachment points of top of the ear to temporal bone. And it further from this "haunch" departs a flexible wire, leaning over the above ligamentum auriculare superior angle of about 45°, forming a lever, where a random shearing earphones wires, that is, by pulling the earphone wire with vector of tension down and back, there are moments of force fixes earphone between tragus and external auditory canal.
In various embodiments of structure, provided a mechanism placed in the back of el. necklace, that is, to "back tie". The above mechanism, at operating position of earphones, promotes or selection of freely suspended part of the back wire, arising in different types of movement, especially when throwing back their heads back, or removing it from the extension at the back tie that arises when tilting the head forward and down, that is, the back wire can be automatically variable length. This function is achieved by pulling (winding or partial collapse) of the back wire, and mosey effort partially offset weight device, partly by friction to skin and clothes (which can be facilitated and rough surface of the device), but also a focus of the upper edge of the back tie inside of arc formed by bending the neck a little back in the normal position of the head. Thus, the aforementioned back wire can have variable length and is under constant low tension, which eliminates sagging and twisting it under your clothes for head movements in all planes and directions and biomechanical combinations of directions as the kinematics of the movements in this system provides only one-way increasing or decreasing length of the wire between conventionally fixed points under neck and upper back. Maximum excursion of the back wire at movements in all directions individually determined and selected by each user using simple settings, raising or lowering the point of back wires fixation and earphones wires, with the ability to change the lengths of the earphones wires and back wire, focusing on individual anthropometric data of the user.
In terms of a bodily machinery it is necessary to specify that head movements are described on the basis of closed kinematic patterns and extrapolation of even difficult enough combinations of a head movements on the created fixation points can be surveyed only in one descriptive category — elongation-shortening of a wire length between the dorsal wiring connections node on neck loop and suboccipital wiring connections node, which is stationary relative to the head, lying under the outer posterior protuberance. Because of the human anatomy, the back wire, which lies on this axis, has a very small displaceability relative to the top of neck and head during their joint movements, as well as the fixing suboccipital unit of earphones wires provide a gentle, but necessary for their immobility tension remaining two-thirds of wires of left and right earphones, V-shaped extending from their top mount unit, aforementioned right and left earphones wires, lying motionless on surface of the head, contribute an additional fixation of plugged earphones into the cavity of the ear and eliminate free sagging of earphones wires. Result of this fixation with head movements is only loosely slack of back wire on an area of minimal length, which can be easily selected by tensioning mechanism with minimal effort. At the same time, flexibility and elasticity of wires without hard headbands allows you to wind up earphones wires and back wire in various reel-loop system, which can be placed either in the front or the back units of el. necklace, where earphones with a special shape, with automatic coiling wires hidden in the soft pocket in the back unit (in the back tie), eliminating need to remove el. necklace completely when not in use, as placed under clothes el. necklace are not visible to an outside observer, and hardly felt by the user. When a call comes in, the user, his head bent slightly forward, pull one arm earphones that are in soft case in the back tie and places them in the ear with other hand while holding the front unit and pressing the unlock button of double coil springs stopper, same holds front side of el. necklace in place, preventing thus raised and the back side of the necklace when you pull up the earphones and user presses the coil springs stopper, fixing coil and not allowing the wire wound back onto the spool. All these manipulations can be performed without having to take out el. necklace from clothes, holding a hand front unit while pressing the stopper, manipulating hands over clothes.
Features of earphones with el. necklace connection:
Device can be thought of as consisting of two main parts and their mobile connection:
- first, head, fixed relative to the head of carrier device part – necklace is composed of the left and right earphones with soft or hard handles, ear envelope top, left and right earphones wires;
- second, fixed relative to the body of carrier device part – necklace, consisting of the front (forward) part, containing signal receiver-transmitter and controls it, the back (rear) part (back tie), and a ring-shaped, transmitter necklace wire that connects front and back parts.
Each wire of the headset goes around the top of the ear, descends behind the pinna back and down, going about the border of hair growth, is connected to the wire from the opposite earphone in center of bottom back side of the head, where is wires length control back top clip on the level of the first cervical vertebra, and then is in the form of back wire or pair of back wires, goes down back of the neck connecting to the back of the necklace, which lies on the upper back in the first thoracic vertebrae.
Adjustable upper clamp is tightened by the device user when wearing earphones as a tight lower occiput, at the first and second cervical vertebrae, thereby assuring constant tension of the earphones wires that radiate from a Y-shaped upward and outward toward the ear shells, avoiding their top and ending earphones and earphones, in turn, are fixed in the ears, which promotes the formation of stretch marks between the back wire and two wires of earphones that fit snugly so and partially wrap around the bottom and back of the head. Such stretching and friction force on the skin leads to fix the earphones in your ears, causing the bow fit snugly and wires extending from them to the scalp and prevents hair loss and sagging of earphones wires.
As already mentioned above, the headset is designed to be worn under clothes. This means that its geometry must be chosen so as to minimize the movement of the part that is covered by clothes. For this purpose applied clamps of the back wires. In this case length of wires hanging freely in the area between the clamps should be minimal.
Table 1. Comparison of excursions and maximum length of wires (Lmax) the different geometries of headsets (calculations can be shown on request)
Thus, the presence of two optimally positioned posterior nodes (in the back of the necklace and under the neck) contributes not only to minimize the sagging of wires, but also organizes tension of wires extending from suboccipital node to the earphones. Since these wires are on the curved surface of the neck, this tension creates a pressure on the skin, as a result of this pressure, a friction force of the wire on skin, which further reinforces earphones in ear. Thus strengthens effort focuses not only on the ears, and not only by fixing of earphones into the external auditory canal, but also uniformly distributed over entire length of the wire, which greatly facilitates the earphones wearing. Suboccipital node is held in a fixed position due to the uniform distribution of the various forces that arise in suboccipital point at this geometry of the wires and their mutual coupling, given the anatomical features of the human.
In one embodiment, the top fixing node of the earphones wires together is adjustable by changing the position of the top fixing node up or down along the earphones wires with change lengths of the above earphones wires is inversely proportional to changes in length of back wire.
In some embodiments adjustment of loop length is made by changeover of wires pairs with different length which are included into the complete set of necklace NeckTec. Right and left wires of a loop between the top button of a loop and back unit have demountable connectors from both ends with contact groups; by first connector the wire is attached to the top loop button, by second connector – in the area of the back unit.
In some embodiments of the electronic necklace, in particular, where in the back unit there is a coil winding the earphones wires, or rollers, stretching this wires, it is appropriate to divide left and right headphone wire and wind (or roll) them separately in order to eliminate a possibility of confusion between the wires. But, at the same time, you must save the earphone wire fixation in working position under the user’s neck, that is, save suboccipital node. One of the solutions that contribute to separate winding (or rolling) the earphones wires in the back unit with preservation of suboccipital node under the user’s neck in working position where Y-shaped split earphones wires going to right and left ear, is presence of a spring or spring grid having a shape of tube or a planar inverted truncated cone, inside which are earphones wires.
In the top part of this spring grid, in the plug housing for wires, there can be a secondary back (occipital) microphone. Spring, formed by a grid, can be a stretching spring (that preferably in majority of variants), or a compression spring.
The mesh tubular spring inside which transit the earphones wires, one ring end through which transit the earphones wires, fastens to the back unit of electronic necklace, and its second end through which there are earphones wires and Y-shaped go at working position the electronic necklace to right and left auricle, is free. The mesh tubular spring can be in shape of the flattened truncated cone where the cone base is fixed by the bottom ring on an upper edge of a soft pocket of the earphones located in the top part of the back unit of the electronic necklace, and in the top part of a spring grid-cone there are two guide plugs for the earphones wires. In the case if the spring grid is a stretching spring, then at a separate earphones wires and at pulling of earphones by user and earphones wires, lower thirds of the earphones wires (back wires), are formed more wider, than the top part of the earphones wires (or have a thickening in the top part of the back wire) that leads to a stretching a cone-shaped grid from the earphones soft pocket, thus the top plug of the spring grid used as suboccipital node and located on the user's body in the position exactly where and must be located suboccipital node. Thickening in the upper part of the back wires can be replaced by the moving slider with possibility to adjust the length of each back wire and earphones wires. In the inactive position of electronic necklace, the conical mesh is placed in the back soft pocket, wrapping a headset.
In more difficult embodiments of electronic necklace, in the back unit can be present an elements of adjusting the wires length and mechanical devices for winding and storing of earphones wires and earphone itself in the inactive mode of electronic necklace.
For use as a part of el. necklace earphones should meet the following requirements:
- Possibility of long and comfortable carrying in working position;
- Compactness and ergonomics since in a inoperative state earphones are stowed in the back unit of el. necklace and their shape should be as much as possible smoothed, flat and excluding any kind hooked to prevent any clinging to clothes or any elements of el. necklace;
- If necessary to provide high quality sound reproduction and its report without distortion to the human ears that in small plug-in earphones probably only at dense corking of the external acoustical channel by an earphone nipple to shake only that volume of air which is in the external acoustical channel (especially actually for low frequencies).
Analysis of all existing in markets and in patent literature samples and models of plug-in earphones finds defects in their design that hampering, or leading to the impossibility of their use in el. necklace.
Earphones providing high quality sound assume as much as possible deep occurrence of an earphone nipple in the ear acoustical channel and its dense contact with the embouchure to the acoustical channel walls of ear (holding apart walls), that in case of long use causes painful sensations in the ear channel as the surface of a cartilage and a skin around an exit from the external acoustical channel is one of the most sensitive areas.
Opposite problem of using plug-in earphones – they drop out from an auricle in case of their leaky insertion in the acoustical channel. Some manufacturers try to solve this problem by placing on earphone an additional soft and flexible emphasis (soft springs), resting in antihelix or even in the bottom leg of antihelix, but this devices render irritating and pressing influence already on other, not less sensitive parts of an auricle. As an example and the above-stated proof, it is possible to consider two variants of eyeglasses handles – so-called "children's" eyeglasses with the semicircular handles covering conchae outside and behind – cheap glasses models and their long carrying often have such variant causes discomfort as conchae as it is very sensitive both from within, and outside (though at short-term use discomfort is possible not to notice at all). Handles of expensive glasses models are kept without squeezing an auricle, and by elastic semi coverage of a skull as it surface has much smaller tactile sensitivity.
Besides, the form of all known earphones does not allow to use them in el. necklace for the following reasons – acting at an angle to the earphones case a nipple and place of earphones wires input create to the earphone rough and hooked form, or do its excessively wide and therefore the earphones will cling to clothes and prevent them taking away in the soft pocket located on the back unit of el. necklace, and also be uncomfortable when wearing earphones on the body, in a pocket of el. necklace at inactive state.
When designing the earphones of constant (long) carrying it is necessary to consider a structure, innervation and blood supply of the auricle, so as not to render long irritating and pressing influence on the most sensitive places of an auricle.
Blood supply of the auricle is carried out at the expense of back ear artery, superficial temporal artery and branch of internal maxillary artery. Blood from auricle gathers in superficial temporal and back ear veins which usually go together with arteries.
Innervation of the auricle it is carried out by big ear, small occipital, trigeminal nerves, the nerve endings of the mixed branches of vagus, glossopharyngeal and facial nerves.
Thus, at detailed studying of nerves schemes and blood vessels, with a high degree probability, least sensitive to prolonged mechanical tactile exposure is the auricle area in a place of bowl cavity adjunction to reverse side of antitragus. Precisely in the bottom part of a bowl cavity must be concentrated main weight of the earphone placed in the ear with a valid minor impact on the tragus – lower part of the antihelix (front - back), and internal part of the antitragus – bowl cavity (from the sides).
The second support point (from which get out earphones wires) may be the edge of the temporal bone, just above and over tuberculum supratragicum, already outside of the ear. This place is least sensitive, because it is no longer the ear, there is a vast low-sensitivity zone of connective tissue - ligamentum auriculare anterius (anterior auricle ligament) and all of the nerves and arteries pass under this ligament, and therefore, the surface above the ligamentum auriculare anterius is insensitive to long squeezing.
When using the earphones to talk over the mobile phone in a quiet room there is no necessity to provide high-quality sound, as bandwidth networks of mobile operators do not exceed the range of 300 - 3500 Hz. Also, in some cases (in the street, driving a car), it is desirable do not close completely the ear canal for adequate perception of environment noise activity.
Thus, the purpose of our design were the earphones, capable to provide of two states - the first – for long comfortable carrying with medium sound quality, but sufficient talk on the phone or listening to voice podcasts in absence of strong noise and with possibility to hear an environment. The second position – providing high sound quality and passive noise reduction, it is necessary, for example, when listening to music or phone call in a noisy environment.
For achievement of tasks which often have the purposes not similar among themselves and assuming unequal, frequently opposite decisions, plug-in earphones in the el. necklace should have or two ways of carrying – "comfort" and "quality", or to have constructive possibility to be switched from position "comfort" in position "quality".
Next we consider various variants of such mechanisms.
The earphones assuming two ways of carrying:
- In mode "comfort", earphone has flat, streamline form, in some embodiments is close to the triangular shape, the earphone housing is located in the bottom part of a bowl cavity where concentrated its main weight with a valid minor impact on the tragus – lower part of the antihelix (front - back), and internal part of the antitragus – bowl cavity (from the sides). Nipple of earphones is short, broad and domed, is below and outside of the ear canal input, not in the channel, but directed up and inside toward him. The second support point (from which get out earphones wires) may be the edge of the temporal bone, just above and over tuberculum supratragicum. Snap together two support points of earphone by elastic, arcuate, concave outward bar, in which (or which) are conductive elements, with an elastic bar its lower rear end covers earphones housing in the back part adjoining to antitragus, and the second end touches (and nestles) its flat surface to the temporal bone, just above and in front of tuberculum supratragicum, where the second end additionally protects the wires output from the earphone.
- In a mode "quality" the user, having taken out earphones, turning them on their direct-axis on 60-90° upwards (counterclockwise right earphone, and clockwise left), and, simultaneously placing the axis close to perpendicular to the body surface, inserts their most deeply the front end in the ear canal, providing a snug fit of the earphone housing to the ear canal wall.
In other embodiments, the user does not change position of earphones, and change of position "comfort" to "quality" is achieved by plugging the external acoustic canal by soft elastic obturator, and (or) by extend of the earphones nipple and (or) extension of embouchure.
Position of earphones at long carrying: they lie freely in the bottom internal part of the auricle, and earphones nipple is short, located near the input of the external acoustical channel, but does not enter into it. Earphones are not thrust constantly in external acoustical channel, but it is enough for acoustical perception of speech through earphones in the absence of background noise. But for a noise isolation and (or) music listening (especially low frequencies) it is necessary to plug the hole in the earphone with a movable soundproofing baffle or to insert a nipple of earphone and (or) embouchure deeper in the acoustical channel, or by hand, or by means of the additional mechanism (hydraulic or electromechanical), expanding and (or) extending a nipple of the earphone and (or) embouchure and promoting tight fit to walls of the external acoustical channel.
If the earphone completely closes the acoustical channel, can have top hole or recess leading from outside to inside of the acoustical channel where the internal end of recess or a hole reaches the external acoustical channel of ear so that through of hole or recess the acoustical channel was not completely blocked and to it access of external sounds has been opened.
In presence of rotary or plug-in obturator on the of earphones housing, you can plug the hole or trench to block access for environmental sounds, however without blocking access for sounds from the speaker of earphone to the external acoustical channel.
In presence of a lath, the top (external) above-stated hole or recess is positioned so that by pressing on external surface of a lath, the above-stated lath, having adjoined to the earphone housing, will close the top (external) hole or recess. Lath in the pressed state (position "quality") can be fixed in this position at the expense of gearing for the special figured recess which is available on the earphones surface.
At one of embodiments, speaker of the earphone (armature or a membrane), lie motionlessly in the earphone body where the longitudinal axis of the earphone housing lies almost horizontally in the bottom part of auricle bowl, thus speakers of the earphone are connected with the earphone nipple (with strengthened on it embouchure) not rigidly, and through a flexible mobile acoustical tubule, and the earphone nipple with embouchure is at an angle, close to 90° to the longitudinal line lying along the earphone housing, and can have two positions – the first – leaky pressed to acoustical channel, but, nevertheless, with the nipple hole directed to its side, and the second position at which the earphone nipple is densely inserted into a hole of the external acoustical channel and completely closes it. The earphone housing with speakers in it, membranes and armatures does not change the position concerning an auricle at both positions, and the nipple (nipple axis) can rotates concerning an axis of earphones on 20-30°, that is, the nipple tightly adjacent to the acoustical channel is connected with the earphone housing not rigidly, and is movable, in the first position, it does not appear to the earphone housing limits and in the second position, pressing the lath or under the lath on the earphone nipple and turning it along a longitudinal axis of the earphone housing, user plug the nipple with embouchure in the acoustical channel in order to improve the sound quality of the earphones and to provide passive noise reduction. The nipple tube can be flexible and movable relative to the earphone housing in which armatures or speaker are located. Advancing the nipple with embouchure deep into the acoustical channel, it is possible to plug it.
In one of embodiments the earphone can have the third position – transport when at removing the earphone from auricle the earphone housing and nipple with embouchure are straightened rather each other along the earphone lath, aspiring to be closer to a common axis that conducts to smoothing of general form of the earphone and elastic lath that, in turn, promotes to smooth passage of the earphones through clothes folds when winding and does not interfere with free location of the earphones in a soft pocket of the back unit of the el. necklace. The specified hole, recess or movable nipple used for providing of access an external noise to the acoustical channel. In some embodiments the specified hole or recess can be closed by valves, plugs, or any other device capable of performing the obturator functions. In other embodiments the earphone can have a nipple changing its position and (or) changing in volume embouchure.
Embouchure can be a porous structure filled with special substance, by passing a weak current increasing in volume. In such embodiment dense closing of the external acoustical channel is performed automatically when the earphones are connected, i.e. when you turn on music or making a call. The density and force of pressing is regulated.
Buttons and keys of the electronic necklace control interface are located as on the electronic unit housing in a forward side of the electronic necklace, and on right and left flexible loops, departing from the front electronic unit and going to a back side of the electronic necklace. Buttons on the electronic unit are duplicated, work only on simultaneous pressing. Buttons on the loop are protected from accidental clicks by envelopes their rolls.
All buttons, both on the electronic necklace, and on the electronic unit are located separately, on some distance from each other.
Ergonomic advantage of this interface is shown that buttons and command keys on the user's body are located in the area of an isosceles triangle with the horizontal base lying between he proximal end of clavicles and top, directed downwards in area of the xiphoid process of sternum (slightly higher in women), so that the reach area of a motor field considers features of the carrier’s clothes not only in warm, but also in cold climate (as an example, it is considered, basically, the man in standard Central European clothes) that allows the user to operate the device without getting it from under clothes, and pressing buttons and keys which easily are the user to the touch under standard clothes as rather nonadjustable, are projected approximately in one place concerning of the carrier’s body, a keys are tactilely distinguishable from each other and can provide a feedback when pressed by the tactile or sound response (click). In some embodiments the command keys can be motionless and use the switch on a piezoelectric element or a resistive pressure sensor. Feedback click (or any other sound), indicating the switching function, can’t be heard to others, and reflected only in earphones user.
Following standard functions of the switched keys are available on the front electronic unit and flexible loop:
1) - answering call (incoming call);
- voice command "call" (in the absence of current connection).
2) - call end (at available connection);
- call drop (when receiving an incoming call);
- stop / continue (when listening).
3) - louder
4) - quiet
5). switching tracks forward (when listening);
- Voice recorder switch on with external microphones or during a telephone conversation.
6) - switching tracks back;
- Voice recorder switch off.
7) - rewind forward (when listening)
- To read SMS a voice (at reception)
8) rewind backward (when listening)
- To write a voice the answer on SMS (at reception)
9) Voice command (except to "call").
Buttons are spaced relative to each other; the buttons on the electronic unit are duplicated, and the buttons on the loop are arranged on separate boards are protected from accidental pressing and connected to the main unit by separate wire.
Also, pressing can be carried out directly on the two opposing buttons with two fingers - thumb and index simultaneously on both sides of the loop. This eliminates accidental pressing (car seat belt, bag belts, etc.). Such an arrangement of the buttons provides maximum accessibility to them, even when wearing a tie, suit and outerwear.
The button of “answering call” probably to allocate on one of the headphones (earphone) – answering a call, the earphone in an auricle is simultaneously fixed. This button to exclude its accidental pressing in other cases, is involved only at an incoming call and does not have any other functions in the rest of the time (during a telephone conversation, while listening to music, in a “stand by” mode).
Electronic speech device notifies the user about adjustments.
Batteries can be distributed in various parts of the el. necklace – in the front part together with the main hardware base, the round flat battery lying on a body (basically on the top part of stomach), diameter about 30 mm, attached from below to a forward part of the el. necklace by means of flexible spring wire, but having a range of motility only in one plane, perpendicular to the plane of the battery itself.
Antennas of bluetooth receiver (in some models and transmitter) can be arranged in chain or on a wide wire at shoulders level to ensure (according to the formula by Vvedensky) better conditions of reception and transmission.
Use of spectacles-screens with connected via contacts in the handles to earphones of the el. necklace, including hardware and battery bases of the el. necklace is supposed.
El. necklace can have a vibration mechanism for an incoming call.
In simple embodiments of the el. necklace microphones for voice of the carrier located in the top part of the front unit of the electronic necklace, in more difficult embodiments into the headset includes microphone array is composed of two microphones in each ear bow next to the earphones, which used directional microphones whose main lobe direction - at the mouth of the speaker.
El. necklace allows to allocate on it a large number of microphones, including bone conduction microphones, powerful power supply, high-speed DSP processor, that allows to support the functioning of the noise cancellation system on hardware and software levels, process signals from a sufficient number of headset microphones, cut background noise and allows to speak without a microphone placed at the mouth of the carrier Used of noise cancellation system can work not only for processing outgoing signal, but and cut off all external sounds in the head earphones, for which provided possibility of forced ON in noisy areas (metro and so on) or disable this function to communicate with others without removing the earphones from the ears.
Since initially the el. necklace is intended for long-term, hardly noticeable carrying for other under clothes of the user in structure of the el. necklace there are no devices for remote microphone, approached to mouth of the user that conducts to necessity for generate on the el. necklace a special topography of microphones arrangement and a hardware-software complex for signal processing received from the microphones. So, in one of embodiments, to noise reduction and improved user speech acceptance, into the electronic necklace includes a set of microphones (from three to nine), having special topology.
Usually headsets have a microphone as close as possible to the source of the desired signal, that is, to the mouth. In this case, overall sensitivity of the microphone is reduced, and useful signal will stand out against the background noise because the sound intensity decreases inversely to the square of the distance from the source. And even if we speak quietly enough, the microphone from lips will catch a voice, and noise is not due to low sensitivity. This eliminates need for complex hardware solutions and also has a fairly linear transfer function in a wide band of frequencies.
However for electronic necklace which should not be allocated especially on the user’s face, such way cannot be applied (the user should not look as operator of telephone center). Elementary way of compromise between dimensions and noise reduction – is directed on a source of sound (mouth) microphone. In this case noise coming from other directions, are perceived by microphone worse. But directional pattern of such microphones is different for different frequencies, on some frequencies thus it is not possible to eliminate noise, the voice is little deformed, directed microphones are sensitive to orientation in space: if slightly change microphone holder – hearing deteriorates.
Microphones should only translate an acoustic signal (speech of the user) in electric, and noise reduction provides a separate hardware- software complex. If to use two omnidirectional microphones, signals from which are processed with a special algorithm in the simplified kind it is possible to tell that the microphone located more close to the user’s mouth, perceives both a voice, and noise. Distant microphone perceives a voice as more "silent" (intensity of sound falls in inverse proportion to square of distance to its source) and with small delaying, and noise – approximately in the same way (it is supposed that ambient noise source located on much bigger distance, than voice source). Next the both signals are compared, from them one way or other (depending on the complexity of the algorithm and the hardware capabilities) singled out the constant component (noise), which is subtracted, from the signal of the near microphone. This scheme is simple, cheap, but also distorts the voice and a few more or less works well only in a moderately loud noise (there are different algorithms for signal processing, and signal processors. But in all headsets using this method microphones (if more than one) are no more than 2-5cm apart.
In the electronic necklace microphones are not directly before of a sound source (the user’s mouth) and therefore reaching them sound (speech) wave will have an amplitude of oscillations is much lower than amplitude of wave, received by the microphone, placed in front of the sound source (the speaker’s mouth), more that in at presence of extraneous noise or acoustic echo, speech quality is deteriorated, making noise reduction in the electronic necklace not less important than localization of a user's speech.
Methods of mathematical processing of signals in microphone array consider time correlation of signals, thus, if such correlation is significant, the signal corresponds to the user’s speech, if the signal is poorly correlates from microphone to microphone it is noise. In such situation two simultaneously speaking person in immediate proximity to the headset can be apprehended as speech of the user. For elimination of this problem microphones should be oriented on a speech source, i.e. user’s mouth. To ensure of localization microphones require precise calibration, which is problematic for mass production, as well as to ensure the immobility of microphones relative to each other in a microphone array, which is difficult to implement in a body-worn, flexible electronic necklace. To reduce the correlation of external audio sources in analysis of the sound, you can use shielded microphones, oriented in the directions of the useful sound source. This requires a directional microphone gun, cardioid microphones, whose dimensions do not allow them to place, for example, on the headset or in the ear.
To solve the problem– qualitative received the user’s speech at different environmental noise without use of special devices which keep microphones at his mouth, it is offered to use advantages of all device of the electronic necklace, giving the opportunity to place on elements of the electronic necklace a hardware-software complex for speech processing, and some microphones (from three to nine) with special topology. In this topology, clearly, there are three positions for the microphones. Two positions - one microphone in each auricle and (or) on haunch of the earphone. In the third position there is a microphone located in the front electronic unit and directed upwards. For functioning of the electronic necklace, presence of microphones in auricle and (or) on the handle (haunch) of the earphone is necessary for a number of reasons:
- At turns of head distance and direction between the mouth and the user’s ear do not changing and microphones remain are motionless almost relative to a sound source that essentially simplifies separation of a useful voice signal;
- microphones placed one by one inside of the right and left ear bowl, contribute to more precise sound localization, as highest resolution of recognizing a sounds for humans occurs by placing the sound source in the midline of head, and lowest – when its displacement to ear sideways left and right or up and down. Best resolution of broadband signals definition (noise, clicks, speech) lies in the horizontal plane and minimum distinguishable angle of the sound source determining is in the frequency range 1.5 - 2.5 kHz. Reason for this is the special structure of external ear in human, as well as the distance between them - interaural basis (constant of Hornbostel-Verhteymer), which in adult is on average 20 cm.
- Auricles, as a rule, are not closed by clothes, not shielded; besides, the microphones located in them are least susceptible to noise generated by movement of clothes.
Proceeding from the above-stated, for microphones localization in a microphone array with orientation on a sound source (a user’s mouth), allowing effectively allocating the speech, it is expedient to allocate the basic air conduction microphone in auricle, in a cavity of the bottom bowl (cavum conchae inferior) to fully utilize the benefits given by the nature to human. These microphones are located in the back part of the earphones housing, where the earphones in working state lies in cavum conchae inferior, over the antitragus, and the earphone housing rests in the tragus, where in a front part of the earphones housing are mounted the armature speakers, and the speaker nipple is directed inside and upwards, in direction of the external acoustical canal.
Advantages of using such a number of microphones can be described based on the theory and experimental data obtained in acoustic research.
In theory the vocal signal s (t) at pass to the microphone location is subject to effects of attenuation and reverberation or reflections, described by function of the impulse response gi (t). In this case on the i-th microphone arrives an acoustical signal xi (t) = gi (t) *s (t) where the symbol * means convolution of functions. On this signal is imposed external noise vi (t), as a result on i-th microphone arrives the signal:
yi (t) = gi (t) *s (t) + vi (t)
Noise cancellation problem is to determine the voice signal s(t) at the specified yi(t). Since noise and speech are not stationary and predictable signals, direct way of solving equation (37) does not exist. Only methods of the signal approximate estimate are possible, which requires a determination of the impulse response functions, and external noise vi(t). There are many of these methods and they are still being developed (see bibliography). To estimate the impulse response function must have a microphone, poorly responsive to fluctuations in air pressure, because it is not sensitive to the effects of such an echo or reflection of acoustic waves. As such microphone in offered set can act the laryngophone. Work principle of the laryngophone is based on piezoelectric effect of ceramic plate. As the plate has a big rigidity and a high natural frequency of fluctuations, it is weakly influenced to fluctuations of air pressure. However quality factor of the plate can be reduced by combining it with a soft and cartilaginous tissue in the auricle and temporal bone, then the plate will take a mechanical vibrations that propagate from the pharynx to the tissues of the human body during the conversation, which, again, are not very sensitive to the air vibrations, but are involved in speech reproduction of the user. Thus, laryngophone will allow distinguishing speech of the user from his speech pauses. Detection of the signal pauses at the moment of speech correlating with the user’s speech will allow estimating a function of the impulse response, and not correlating part will correspond to external noise.
Laryngophone, allocated in the auricle or on the internal surface of the earphone lath forward part significantly distorts a voice in comparison with the air conduction microphones (a further away from the larynx, a greater attenuation and distortion). But it is not only used to determine alternations of the voice activity and speech pauses, but also allows estimating algorithm and dynamic of the voice practically without noise.
Also, using the apparatus of linear prediction, coefficients and (or) algorithm of these distortions can be determined, compare and take this into account in further calculations, since the period of fundamental tone for microphones and laryngophone is repeated very precisely.
It should be noted that using only one laryngophone as a recorder is not possible, because of large distortions in a record which are caused by nonlinearity of the piezoelectric effect. Recording the sound signal will be implemented through the air conduction microphones, in particular, microelectromechanical (MEMS) microphones, which have a sufficient degree of linearity in the frequency range of voice. Noise reduction in this case can also be performed on a single microphone, but such suppression is accompanied by a noticeable distortion of speech.
Thus, in a preferred embodiment of the el. necklace, during forming a microphone matrix is proposed to use the three basic air conduction microphones and the laryngophone – one microphone in the each auricle, and (or) on the earphone haunch and the microphone, located in the front electronic unit and directed upward.
According to numerous investigations using the Wiener method for noise suppression from N microphones using a sample with the length Ns cycles with frequency of 8 kHz, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is changed with number of the microphones from 1 to 4, then dependence weakens. It follows that number of the microphones from 3 to 5 will significantly increase the noise reduction and will reduce the speech distortion.
In numerous researches conducted on the issue of noise reduction, the method of space time prediction is often described. In this method is proposed to use a known kind of microphones signals correlation between them. This kind can be determined from the impulse response functions gi (t) for each microphone. In comparison of space time prediction and Wiener methods, it can be seen that when using 4-microphones the signal-to-noise ratio is approximately the same for both methods, and index of distortion is much less with a large number of samples Ns when using the space-time prediction method. Thus, use of this method is very actually that in turn leads to necessity for the impulse response functions gi (t) definition. Specifically for this task in the offered headset is supposed to use the laryngophone. In this case laryngophone acts as the voice activity detector and allows detecting the speech pauses, which analysis as it is described above, may allow definition of the functions gi (t).
Number of microphones is not a total characteristic of the microphone array, the role of a relative positioning of microphones, namely distances between the microphones also is great. From the theory of directional microphones is known that the angle of orientation, inside which sensitivity is great, is determined by the relation of acoustic wavelength and distance between microphones with the following formula:
a = arcsin (l/L) (1)
In the expression (1) used summation of signals from microphones. In case of the first order gradient array (signals from microphones are subtracted) expression for the lobe angle slightly another:
a1 = arccos (1 - l/L) (2).
In both cases the main lobe angle decreases at increase in distance L. In our case the maximum distance between microphones is reached, when they are located in opposite points of a head, i.e. in auricles.
It is necessary to notice that expressions (1), (2) obtained in the case of plane waves, i.e. for remote sources. In our case, the source of a voice signal located at the distance less than the acoustic wavelength. This fact can be used for difference of noise from the useful signal. This requires analyzing the time delays of signals coming to the microphones. The result of this analysis may be restoring form of the wave front, and then spatial localization of the source. For this purpose it is necessary a minimum four microphones, not lying in one plane. Similar localization can also be useful to determine the head position of the speaking user in order to further its navigation. In these purposes it is useful to arrange other two microphones on the user’s breast, symmetrically about a mouth.
Arrangement of the microphones on a breast justifies also by following reasons. Sound vibrations produced in the vocal cords of the user, extending through the throat and mouth, get a preferred direction outside, like the directed sound leaving a megaphone. According to the Huygens-Fresnel principle vibrations coming to a specific point is the result of addition or an interference of the secondary waves excited by acoustic waves at each point of the wave front. And amplitudes of these secondary waves fall with distance, as regards phases, distance from microphones to a mouth is much less than wavelength of the basic human speech spectrum, transmitted in the operator's network (300-3500Hz), so this vibrations can be considered as in phase. Thus, amplitude of the sound vibrations will be in inverse proportion to a square of average distance from microphone to the user’s mouth. In this case the distance from the auricles to the mouth invariably, at the same time, the distance from the mouth to the user’s breast varies and there can be much less, than the distances between the mouth and the auricle. In this case amplitude of the sound vibrations in the area of microphones on the breast will be much higher than the amplitude of vibrations in the area of the auricle. It will allow to carry out better noise reduction and to trace movements of the user’s head.
Design features of the el. necklace allow to place in the front unit, both in right and left loops the miniature directional microphones with mechanical beamformer, simply speaking, tubules in which one end is a MEMS microphone, and other, open end of the tube is directed to the user's mouth. Miniature devices include those microphones, in which size of the beamformer significantly smaller than the wavelength of received audio signals band. Mechanical miniature beamformer represent a channel (soundguide) of arbitrary shape, opened at one end and attached to the capsule with omnidirectional microphone inside. Beam forming occurs due to the diffraction shadow of the sound guide walls in a different direction from the direction of the sound channel axis. Since we are talking about small devices, the gain is rarely more than 3 dB. However, this type of directional microphones due to its simplicity, now widely used in hearing aids. But design features of the el. necklace allow to little increase a length of the tube (up to 5 cm in the front unit housing and up to 3см in a chest part of the loop), that, certainly, will improve quality of receiving the user's speech and will promote to noise reduction of ambient noise in the subsequent calculations.
That is, in the main microphone array should include a microphone located in the top part of the necklace electronic unit. Directional diagram of this microphone is upward at the user’s mouth. The microphone is protected from “microphone effect” because lies in the top plane deepening of the headset electronic unit and sensitive part of the microphone protected by the electronic unit housing, does not rub about clothes, but also is not blocked by clothes, as a thickness of the housing (nearby 15mm) creates an air cavity between the body surface and clothes. Also, this microphone has a wind protection, as it is under clothes. Lacks of this microphone – it is under the clothes (under a tie, for example), therefore the carrier speech is suppressed, and the signal reception at head turns is changed.
Processor, receiving data from the microphones located in the auricle, can filter mainly high frequencies of the human speech spectrum - 1,5 - 6 kHz and as the microphone directivity is improved at frequency increase, the microphone is oriented on a carrier mouth, thus microphone (or microphones) on a breast in the front unit and (or) in the front right and left loops to adjust on mainly low-frequency speech spectrum, well transited under clothes and less dependent from position of the user’s mouth, then to synchronize frequency response function all of the microphones and transmit it as the outgoing carrier speech, that can eliminate the inherent weaknesses of each microphone.
In one embodiment of the headsets is possible location of pair microphones in the auricle. In this case the pair can serve as the first order directional gradient microphone. In this case orientation of such microphone will be significant only at high frequencies, in accordance with the expressions (1) and (2). In this case localization and noise reduction can be carried out on different algorithms for high and low frequencies. Signals from microphones on the breast will play a major role in the low-frequency noise reduction algorithm.
In other embodiments of the el. necklace in forming of the microphone array can use an additional microphones: the microphone mounted on each earphone so that the first microphone was placed on the earphone haunch, and the second inside of the auricle, in a bowl, contributes to the gradient reception of a voice signal, and for use of so-called “proximity effect” that allows to calculate an orientation on the useful sound source. First order gradient array placed on the right earphone with the directional diagram to the left, and gradient array on the left earphone, with the directional diagram to the right, will give more exact direction on a speech source.
Imposing directional diagram of the ear microphones specularly, amplifying those signal spectra, which coincide in the right and left microphones and cutting off divergent spectra by the directional diagram, it is possible to allocate the carrier speech precisely enough.
Additional microphone directed backwards is placed on a nape in the place of the top earphones wires fixation (suboccipital node) and designed to create a volumetric microphone matrix and for receiving an ambient noise.
For calculation of the microphone array with the certain orientation on a sound source it is used the following microphone topology:
- Right and left microphone in each auricle;
- Laryngophone in the earphone housing;
- Microphone in the top front part of the electronic necklace, directed upwards.
Extended microphone topology may include:
- Microphones in the right and left loops of the headsets directed upwards;
- Additional microphones on the each earphone that allows to create on each auricle the first order gradient array, consisting of two microphones at the distance of 2.5-3 cm from each other – the first on the earphone haunch, the second inside the auricle, where left gradient array has the directional diagram to the right, and right gradient array has the directional diagram to the left;
- Occipital microphone.
In one of embodiments is carried out a preliminary measurement of acoustic characteristics of the user's to further adjustment of the sound processor that receives it, considering the features of this voice range.
In one of embodiments the carrier speech during a telephone conversation, received by means of several microphones and directed microphone matrix of the electronic necklace without changes transmitted on communication channels to the base station of operator, where performed a mathematical processing of the received data in order to noise reduction and selection of the useful signal (actually speeches), with further transfer to the other party.
In the electronic necklace can be placed a position sensors, accelerometers, which will help in orientation with the voice prompts in a GPS device. If to arrange accelerometers on the earphones shackle or in the earphones the navigation system, which is available in the electronic necklace, can even determine the user's head direction of rotation.
Antennas of the bluetooth-receiver (in some models and of the transmitter) can be arranged on a loop, on both of shoulders, being in the area of clavicles or shoulders of the user, antenna locates higher than usual, that allows to improve a signal reception and transmission, that also can be obtained at location of the antenna two branches on both shoulders or clavicles, achieving the distance between antenna branches correlatively the half of length GSM and (or) bluetooth - signal.
El. necklace enables to speak by phone, listen to music, or receive any voice information, leaving the hands free.
Placed in this way headset on the breast and partially on the back of the carrier allows placing additional power supplies, great hardware base, which improves a quality of communication, a duration of use without recharging, and will allow refusing from the microphones located in vicinity of the user’s face.
Possibility of placing a large number of microphones and their particular topology (on the shackle, on the breast, back), is able to receive and process the signal coming from the carrier on a broad microphone array is more fully fix and cut out any ambient noise.
To control is not necessary to get the el. necklace or phone from under clothes or from a pocket as it is possible to press buttons being under clothes outside, over clothes, or giving voice commands, not to manipulate at all your hands to control.
Having constantly portable, but hardly noticeable el. necklace, it is possible to be online, to listen a music, podcasts, to receive the current voice information, visually without distorting external the appearance of the user and without being allocated against associates.
In the el. necklace there is a possibility to combine an electronic device and a piece of jewelry.
Incoming call is not audible to others, but is felt by the carrier.
With the el. necklace the phone emanation decreases for a carrier brain.
Direct contact of the device with the user’s skin allows locating on the el. necklace sensors for the user health monitoring (temperature, pressure, alcohol content, etc.) to monitor the galvanic skin response for control of the sympathetic nervous system, and also the el. necklace can be used as a part of the biotelemetering complex for medical diagnostics.
Variants of use:
The device can be used not only as an additional to a mobile phone but also as a component of mobile, wearable by man complex, where the hardware base is dispersed in several devices carried by man, for example, some part of the hardware and battery base can be in a man's trouser belt, and wire connection with the el. necklace is possible on a wire lying under clothes along the backbone on the back; the el. necklace itself can be a mobile phone (smartphone), and separately wearable screen-keyboard unit can be a wireless interface to it.
With further development of glasses-screens it is possible to concentrate all the hardware and battery base not in the glasses (that would make them heavy and bulky), but in different units of the el. necklace, and electrical connectors between the glasses and the el. necklace place on the earphone shackle and the glasses shackle.
With further development of technologies expanding a possibilities of voice communication between human and computer and wide distribution of 3G and 4G communication, advantages of the el. necklace become even more obvious, namely: improved communication quality, possibility to speak and listen to the interlocutor by phone in stereo mode; GPS navigation without a visual inspection of the map, but only by means of sound commands to the carrier; development of new voice internet servers and internet surfing without a screen and mouse, but only through a voice interface.
Electronic necklace can be as a part of the overall single complex, which includes (along with the glasses-screens and other mobile units) home or office computers with implementation a permanent link between them and base station that, by analogy with the term “cloud computing”, this complex can be called, using the term “cloud mobiling”.